History of the Drug Trust


History of the Drug Trust

In 1987, the eighteen largest drug firms were ranked as follows:

  1. Merck (U.S.) $4.2 billion in sales.
  2. Glaxo Holdings (United Kingdom) $3.4 billion.
  3. Hoffman LaRoche (Switzerland) $3.1 billion.
  4. Smith U.S. Kline Beckman ($2.8 billion).
  5. $2.7 billion Ciba-Geigy (Switzerland).
  6. Pfizer (U.S.) $2.5 billion, despite Standard & Poor’s reporting $4 billion in sales.
  7. Hoechst A. G. ($2.5 billion; Standard & Poor’s lists its sales as $38 billion Deutschmarks) is a German company.
  8. $2.4 billion ($4.93 billion, according to Standard & Poor’s) American Home Products (U.S.).
  9. $2.3 billion ($3.72 billion Standard & Poor’s) Lilly (U.S.).
  10. Upjohn (U.S.) $2 billion.
  11. Squibb (U.S.) $2 billion.
  12. Johnson & Johnson (U.S.) $1.9 billion.
  13. Sandoz (Switzerland) $1.8 billion.
  14. Bristol Myers (U.S.) $1.6 billion.
  15. Beecham Group (United Kingdom) $1.4 billion (Standard & Poor’s estimates that the U.S. subsidiary’s sales totaled $1.4 billion, or $2.6 billion in total pounds sterling income).
  16. German company Bayer A. G. received $1.4 billion (Standard & Poor’s reports that the amount is $45.9 billion Deutschmarks).
  17. Syntex (U.S.) $1.1 billion.
  18. $1.1 billion (Standard & Poor’s lists the amount as $3.1 billion) for Warner Lambert (U.S.).

As a result, we discover that the United States continues to hold a commanding advantage in the manufacture and distribution of drugs. In 1987, prescription drug sales in the US increased by 12.5% to $27 billion.

Eleven of the top 18 companies are based in the US, followed by three in Switzerland, two in Germany, and two in the UK. Nutritionist T. J. Frye points out that the Rockefeller family controls the Drug Trust in the United States through a cartel arrangement with German company I. G. Farben.

When it actively participated in a cartel agreement with Standard Oil of New Jersey in the 1930s, I. G. Farben actually held the title of largest chemical company in Germany at the time. The Allied Military Government Similar to the famous court-ordered division of Standard Oil itself, it was split up into three companies after World War II as part of the “anti-cartel” goals of the time, with the Rockefellers maintaining a controlling interest in each of the new businesses. General William Draper of investment bankers Dillon Read announced the new decree in Germany from his office in the I. G. Farben building.

I. G. Farben would cease to exist going forward, and three new businesses would appear instead: Bayer from Leverkusen, BASF from Ludwigshafen, and Hoescht from close to Frankfort. Only ICI of England is bigger than the three spawns, which are all now bigger than the previous I. G. Farben. Over half of the products sold by these companies are exported. Shearman and Sterling, a Rockefeller law firm with William Rockefeller as a partner, represents BASF in the US partner.
Merck, the leading pharmaceutical company in the world, got its start as a pharmacy in Darmstadt, Germany, in 1668. John J. Horan, the company’s president, is a partner in both the Morgan Guaranty Trust and the J. P. Morgan Company. On May 10–12, 1985, he went to a Bilderberger gathering in Rye, New York. In 1953, Merck acquired Sharp & Dohme, a significant pharmaceutical company. Oscar Ewing, who played a key role in the government’s promotion of fluoridation for the Aluminum Trust, was the Merck company’s secretary at the time, and his office was located at One Wall Street in New York.
John T. Connor is one of the directors of Merck. He started his business career at Cravath, Swaine and Moore, the law firm that represented Kuhn, Loeb Company. Connor later joined the Office of Naval Research, served as the Secretary of the Navy’s special assistant from 1945 to 1947, and was president of Merck from 1967 to 1980. Connor also serves as a director of Warner Lambert, a rival pharmaceutical company, Capital Cities ABC, a media conglomerate, and Rockefeller’s Chase Manhattan Bank.

Each of the major pharmaceutical companies in the US has at least one director with close ties to the Rockefeller family or a Rothschild bank. John K. McKinley, the chief operating officer of Texaco, is another director of Merck. He also serves on the board of Manufacturers Hanover Bank, which Congressional records identify as a significant Rothschild bank.

The history of the pharmaceutical industry has always been one of fraud, preying on the fears of the uneducated and the credulous and exploiting people’s general anxieties about illness and mortality.

Goddard’s drops, a bone distillate that was marketed as a treatment for gout in England in 1673, is considered the grandfather of all nostrums. Tuscarora rice was offered for sale there in 1711 as a remedy for eating. Numerous “cures” have been discovered to be worse than the disease over the course of about four thousand years of the practice of writing prescriptions for pharmaceuticals. There is poison in physics, Shakespeare cautioned.

Atlanta’s well-known blood specialist, Dr. R. R. Dracke, also cautioned that

The following well-known medications—amidopyrene, dinitrophenol (a diet pill), novaldine, antipyrene, sulphanilamide, sedormid, and salvarsen—can poison the marrow in the bones, reduce the generation of white blood cells, and even be fatal when used as prescribed.

No acetanilid is safe, according to doctors, as all coal tar compounds are potent cardiac depressants.

Ascriptin is produced by Rorer Pharmaceuticals, and aspirin or aspirin-containing products should be used daily by men “to protect their heart,” according to television commercials. The claims that aspirin may prevent heart attacks in men have been stopped by the attorneys general of Texas and New York. Aspirin lowers fever and makes it challenging for a doctor to appropriately identify pneumonia.
Thalidomide was promoted as the “tranquilizer of the future” by the William S. Merrell Company, which later merged with Vick Chemical. It ensured that uncomfortable pregnancy symptoms would be under control. Unfortunately, moms who used it gave birth to babies who had flippers for limbs or legs or none. While carefully avoiding any treatment of American victims, 60 Minutes recently provided a 25-year update on English thalidomide victims.

The program highlighted the sufferers’ incredible bravery as they attempted to go about their regular lives, and the reporters appeared to struggle to contain their amusement at the bizarre creatures as they frantically struggled to maintain their upright position while rolling around like human eggs. A typical operation of CBS’ brand of “adversary journalism” would have been to shove a microphone in the face of the company’s chairman and demand to know why they didn’t realize this was a dangerous drug. However, CBS also avoided mentioning the names of the thalidomide manufacturers or distributors.

The pharmaceutical industry provides a significant portion of CBS’s advertising revenue, therefore they are not going to piss off their most loyal clients.
The anticholesterol medication MER/29, which was manufactured by William S. Merrell, was marketed as a breakthrough. It was quickly discovered that MER/29 was the culprit of “alligator skin,” eczema, hair color changes, and lack of sex drive.

Chloromycetin, developed by Parke-Davis, was hailed as the next great medicine in 1949. Many doctors were persuaded to administer it to their kids, who subsequently passed away from leukemia. Chloromycetin administration caused 75% of cases of aplastic anemia to be fatal. After being told the medication was safe by a Parke-Davis employee, Dr. H. A. Hooks of El Paso lost his seven and a half year old son.

A Washington grand jury indicted Richard Merrell and company chairman William S. Merrell in December 1963 for providing the FDA with false information regarding MER/29. They entered a “no contest” plea, and on June 4, 1964, they were given a $80,000 fine. Lawrence Walsh, a former federal judge from 1957 to 1960 who is now well known as the White Knight who is suing prominent personalities on nebulous claims of wrongdoing, served as the Parke-Davis defense attorney.
The American Medical Association exerted considerable pressure on Dr. Roger Hegeberg, Assistant Secretary of HEW, and the Secretary of HEW, Finch, after an oral contraceptive pill was discovered to cause severe reactions, claiming they were “over-emphasizing dangers.” As a result, the warning on the pill was reduced from 600 words to only 96 much milder words; this warning was then increased by Secretary Finch himself of April 7, 1970, to 120 words of warning, which was released personally

The drug was later discovered to cause cancer, heart attacks, and fatal blood clots. The AMA’s actions in this case stood in bizarre contrast to its harsh attacks on “quacks,” who it said were the true threats to the public, for many years.
Versed, an intravenous medication manufactured by Hoffman LaRoche, was discovered to have caused forty deaths in just two years. In his seminal book “Pills, Pesticides and Profits,” Richter mentions how a U.S. company named Velsicol marketed three million pounds of a pesticide called Phosvel (leptophos), despite the EPA never having given it its seal of approval.

It was shipped to thirty nations by Velsicol. The nervous system sustains severe damage as a result. It poisoned dozens of farmers and killed one hundred water buffalo in Egypt. A subsidiary of Chicago-based Northwest Industries, which generates $3 billion annually, Velsicol is run by longstanding rail tycoon Ben Heinemann, a trustee of the University of Chicago, and the First Chicago Corporation.

James E. Dovitt is a director of Northwest Industries as well as National Can, Hart, Schaffner and Marx, president of Mutual of New York, and director of MONY. The National Council of U.S. China Trade, Thomas S. Hyland, vice president of Standard & Poor’s, Gaylord Freeman, director of Baxter Travenol and Atlantic Richfield, James F. Bere, chairman of Borg-Warner, and directors of Abbott Laboratories, Time, Inc., Hughes Tool Company, and Field Enterprises are also directors of Northwest. William B. Graham, chairman of Baxter Travenol Drug Company, also a trustee of the University of
The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission outlawed TRIS, a fire-retardant chemical used in clothes, in 1977 following years of fervent advertising that claimed it would prevent thousands of children from dying in fires every year. The Third World received 2.4 million TRIS-treated clothing at that point. The FDA took dipyrene off the market in 1977. After it was discovered that it could cause serious blood disorders and interfere with white blood cell production, it was widely distributed in Latin America without any warning.
A nerve problem was discovered to be a side effect of the 1934 medicine cloquinol, manufactured by Ciba-Geigy (Batero Vioform and Mexon), which was used to treat amoebic dysentery. After 11,000 cases of SMON, subacute myelic optic neuropathy, 700 Japanese perished from taking it.

After then, Ciba-Geigy made a settlement payment to about 1500 victims and survivors. An painkiller that Hoechst sold was compared to aspirin, aminopyrein, and dipyrene. It was discovered to induce anemia and was outlawed in the US, but it was still available in Asia and Latin America. Additionally, chlorophenicol (chloromycetin) is still available in Asia and Latin America. Travelers are advised to use caution when using substances that are illegal in the United States and are available in other countries.
Aspartame (Nutrasweet), an artificial sweetener, has now overrun the American market. Although it has been criticized for causing brain convulsions, it brought in $750 million for its creators in 1987. More Congressional hearings have now been scheduled in the aspartame controversy, which has lasted thirteen years.

Burroughs Wellcome’s breakthrough AIDS medication, AZT, is expected to bring in millions of dollars. According to reports, it can extend an AIDS patient’s life from six months to two years. This company is controlled by the Wellcome Trust, whose board of directors includes Lord Franks, a director of the Rockefeller Foundation.
There is still a sizable market for tranquilizers. In addition to Librium, Limbitrol, Marplan, Noludar, Tractan, Clonpin, and Dalmane, Roche Labs (Hoffman LaRoche) continues to promote Valium, its top seller. The cancer treatment drug Matulane is also produced by Roche. Leukopenia, anemia, and thrompenia are the adverse effects of this medication, which also causes bleeding, leukemia, nausea, vomiting, stomatitis, dysphagia, diarrhea, discomfort, chills, fever, sweating, sleepiness, and dysphagia.

A practitioner of alternative medicine who ever dared to sell such a substance to the general public would face a life sentence in prison. We are all aware of the harm quacks may do to your health.

Dr. Bruce Medd, the medical director of Roche, welcomes these medications as gifts to humanity. Pay attention to his rhapsodies,

“In contrast to quackery, which has neither been scientifically examined nor verified, Roche goods are synonymous with excellence and effectiveness. Roche joins the fight against health fraud and dubious medicine.

The Office of Technology Assessment of the U.S. Government reports that, in spite of Dr. Medd’s claims, 95% of the medications currently available have not been shown to be effective. In fact, this author has never heard of any “quack” treatment producing even a small percentage of the negative side effects as those induced by Matulane, Dr. Medd’s prized creation, as described above.
Smith, Kline Beck-man is another company that sells “proven” medications. The company got its initial millions by selling the substance known as “speed” through doctor prescriptions, as well as the infamous Dexedrine and Dexamil. Executives at Smith, Kline Beckman have admitted to covering up 36 deaths and cases of serious kidney damage in patients taking their drug Selocrin, which was ultimately taken off the market, according to 34 charges.

Eli Lilly of Indiana and Smith Kline Corporation of Philadelphia pleaded guilty to criminal charges of failing to immediately notify the FDA about deaths and serious injuries to persons using their pharmaceuticals, according to Dr. Sidney M. Wolfe’s Health Letter from July 1986. Before it was pulled off the market due to negative effects, the arthritis medication Oraflex by Lilly had been on the market for three months and had been taken by 600,000 Americans. 300,000 prescriptions for Smith Kline’s high blood pressure drug Selacryn were written in just eight months.

Despite deaths and negative side effects from Feldene (pyroxicam, an arthritic medication), Pfizer suppressed information from the FDA. It was discovered that McNeil’s Suprol, an oral analgesic licensed in 1985, damages the kidneys. The arthritis medication Orudis (jetoprofen) from Wyeth increased the prevalence of ulcers. The FDA granted approval for Hoechst’s antidepressant Merital (nomigensine) in December 1984, but it was forced off the market in January 1986 due to catastrophic side effects, including hemolytic anemia. In March 1986, Wellbutrin (buproprion), which had been discovered to cause seizures in female users, was taken off the market.
Even if studies in esteemed medical journals claim that the officially recognized “standard of care” medicine for treating colon cancer is based on the use of the exceedingly hazardous chemical 5-F-U, it nevertheless has a good track record. Because the American Cancer Society owns 50% of 5-F-U, it is still routinely utilized. Ritalin, a medicine created by Swiss company Ciba-Geigy, is finding an expanding market in the American public school system. Ritalin has somehow transformed into the main tool for managing “hyperactive” (read: healthy) schoolchildren.

ADD (attention deficiency disorder) was a new label coined by social workers that could be “managed” with Ritalin 20 mg tablets in sustained release capsules. Ritalin use has increased 97% since 1985, aided by the educational institution, which is inclined to add any drug or chemical to the teaching process. Students are threatened with immediate expulsion from school unless they take the medicine.

The Wall Street Journal reported on January 15, 1988, that concerned parents have brought many lawsuits against schools over the administration of Ritalin. The Georgia Board of Medical Examiners is currently investigating the rapidly increasing usage of Ritalin in the wealthy suburbs of Atlanta’s public schools. A student who is currently on trial for murder has admitted that Ritalin was part of his defense.
Pesticides continue to pose a greater threat than insects. The drug lindane (also known as Gammelin 20), which is made by the Rockefeller-associated company Hooker Chemical, causes leukemia, convulsions, convulsion-like symptoms, and dizziness. The FDA fought Shell Oil’s lindane-containing pesticide strips for many years.

Despite the fact that it has been proven that lindane can contaminate any food substance as well as any non-metal food container, these strips and other vaporizers are frequently used in restaurants. The Pesticides Regulator continued to permit their usage for a further sixteen years even though these testing were finished in 1953!

According to FDA reports, Vapone 3, the lindane formulation, is continuously released by Shell Chemical Company’s No Pest Strips.

They were expressly forbidden by the Agriculture Department from being used in meat processing plants, but the resourceful maker sold them to restaurants. The U.S. Public Health Service issued warnings about the dangers of using Shell No Pest Strips in elderly or young children’s bedrooms between 1965 and 1970.

Dr. Roy T. Hansberry, an executive of Shell Chemical, which supported Shell Development, was a member of the seven-person task group established by the Agricultural Department to investigate the processes for registering pesticides.

Shell has 250 pesticide products registered.

The unsigned memo was attached to Hansberry’s personal approval to participate in this task force.

According to their statement, “The Agricultural Registration Service does not have, or is aware of, any official business with, the persons, firms, or organizations with which Dr. Hansberry has other financial interests… which would conflict or represent a conflict of interest.”

Assistant health commissioner Dr. Mitchell A. Zaron also owned shares in Shell Oil and worked as a consultant for Shell Chemical. He published findings that allegedly proved Vapona to be so safe that it didn’t need any precautions for young children, the elderly, or anyone with medical conditions. He supported the usage of Vapona strips at a Public Health Service gathering.

When the department objected to the initial Shell registration of Vapona in 1963, John S. Leary, Jr., research division chief staff officer for pharmacology overturned the department’s objection and supported the usage of Vapona until 1966, when he quit to join Shell Oil Company. According to estimates, Shell No Pest Strips exposure causes thousands of individuals to suffer each year.
Parathion, another insecticide produced by Monsanto and Bayer AG, also has unfavorable consequences. In Pakistan in 1976, 2,500 people were poisoned with the insecticide malathion, many of them perished. Additionally, DDT continues to find a receptive market abroad, as we have already highlighted, much to the maker Monsanto’s financial benefit.
Researchers discovered in 1975 that the frequently prescribed medications Adactone and Flagyl, made by the G. D. Searle Company, gave test animals cancer. They made $17.3 million in sales each year. The company had provided the FDA with false information and erased records of cancers in mice brought on by these medications.
A March 15, 1962, Consumers Protective Message from Washington emphasized that since 1938, producers have to provide the government with proof of a medicine’s efficacy before marketing it. The legislation did, however, have a serious flaw—there was no explicit call for proof that the drug would “live up to its claim of its labeling” or for a demonstration of its efficacy.

As per the Message,

There is no way to quantify the senseless suffering, the money that was wasted unwittingly, or the lengthening of illnesses brought on by the usage of such ineffective medications.

Congress passed the Kefauver-Harris amendments, which demanded proof of effectiveness, in 1962. Bois-feuillet Jones, special assistant for medical affairs at HEW, prevented the appointment of Dr. Charles D. May, a renowned physician who had testified at the Kefauver hearings on the tactics used by pharmaceutical manufacturers to promote prescription drugs. The position of chief of the Food and Drug Administration Bureau of Medicine was vacant as a result.

According to Dr. May’s testimony, the payola and other promotions totaled three and a half times as much as the price of all the academic courses offered at our medical schools. Drug Research Reports, June 1964, reported that Jones “earned the confidence of the pharmaceutical sector by preventing the appointment of Dr. May.” Dr. Joseph F. Sadusk, Jr. was chosen by Jones in place of Dr. May despite the fact that, according to evidence before the Senate Committee on Government Operations, he did everything in his power to sabotage the efficacy legislation.

Later, Sadusk was promoted to vice-president of Parke-Davis. Before being granted the vice-presidency of Parke-Davis, Sadusk had stopped the recall of Parke-Davis’ antibiotic medication Chloramphenicaol, which had caused blood toxicity and leukopenia. Dr. Joseph M. Pisani from the Bureau of Medicine took his place as the FDA’s medical director. To work for the Proprietary Association of Drug Manufacturers, Pisani resigned.

The following Bureau of Medicine director later rose to the position of chief executive of Hoffman LaRoche.

Dr. Howard Cohn, the former chair of the FDA medical evaluation board, accepted a job offer from Ciba-Geigy. Winthrop Drug Company hired Dr. Harold Anderson, director of the FDA’s drug division. Morris Yakowitz discovered that his work at the FDA qualified him for a position at the Smith Kline and French pharmaceutical company. Former director of regulatory compliance Allan E. Rayfield agreed to work for Richardson-Merrell, Inc.
Thus, we discover that the government’s regulation of the pharmaceutical industry has long exhibited the revolving door phenomenon. FDA Commissioner Charles C. Edwards is now identified as senior vice-president of Becton Dickinson, a sizable medical supply company, while Surgeon General Leonard Scheele is now the president of Warner-Lambert Research Labs. Although it is hardly a household name, it generates $1 billion in revenue annually for the medical industry.Wesley Howe, who serves as its chairman, founded the Health Industry Manufacturers Association. George Goldenberg, the president of Ormont Drug and Chemical Company, appointed James L. Goddard as chairman of the board. After accepting a position as Parke-Davis’ vice-president, the FDA’s top doctor, Joseph Sadusk, was later made the company’s president.
One would assume that these men left FDA just to work in more enjoyable environments since the workplace atmosphere there was noticeably dismal.

In 1976, Dr. Richard Crout, director of testing for the FDA Bureau of Drugs, gave the following speech to the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association:

“Several employees engaged in open intoxication that lasted for months, which was made worse by what some have referred to as the worst government personnel. I’m referring to doctors here, people who would hunch down in a chair, not react to queries, and moan and sigh with sweeping gestures. There was internal intimidation coming from people who were tittering in corners and tossing spitballs.

(Extracted May 27, 1976, from the New England Journal of Medicine)

One would wonder why a government agency made up of scientists and doctors with advanced degrees would put up with such working circumstances.

The Medical Monopoly wanted these restrictions and worked to ensure that they were implemented by the FDA in order to drive away sincere, devoted government employees who merely wanted to do their jobs and wanted to safeguard the public from harmful drugs. Due to their dramatic, obvious effects, it appears that the most harmful medications are also the most profitable. Sadly, they frequently result in dramatic adverse effects like renal and brain damage or unexpected death.
Drug companies are skilled at forming powerful lobbying groups in Washington that the general public is ignorant of. Sixty-six businesses, including Dow, Monsanto, Hoffman LaRoche, and many others, contribute $5,000 a year to the Institute of Food Technology and the Council of Agricultural Science and Technology, two organizations that routinely deceive the public about the dangers of cancer-causing food additives.

They are able to downplay and undermine Congressmen’s repeated attempts to highlight the risks associated with several of these substances. It’s all a part of the public relations game.
Senator Estes Kefauver was a prominent figure in politics during the 1950s. He appeared to be traveling directly to the White House. Kefauver scheduled extensive hearings before the Senate on the widespread abuses committed by the Medical Monopoly, but this was only because of the deluge of complaints he received from his constituents about the drug industry’s practices of taking advantage of the elderly and producing dangerous drugs.

The Senate Anti-Monopoly Subcommittee was the name he gave his committee. These proceedings, which took place in 1959 and 1960, revealed that Schering had markups of 1,118% on their medication predisone and that other pharmaceutical companies frequently displayed profits on their products between 10,000% and 20,000%. The government’s suggestions for the marketing of “generic,” or less expensive non-brand-name, medications for widespread sales of the same medications at lower prices, were the result of these hearings.

The action was ostensibly made to rein in the drug corporations’ excessive profits, but the end result was that these businesses saw significant gains in their sales volume and earnings. The fact that these hearings turned out to be Senator Kefauver’s political Waterloo was an even more terrible outcome.

The Medical Monopoly, which we have shown is not only the officers and employees visible to the public but also the shadowy figures in the background (many of them aliens, who control millions of shares in these companies through the practice of “street names,” concealing their power), sent out the message that “Kefauver is through,” hurt by the publicity and criticism that followed the hearings.

When he launched his presidential campaign, he discovered that the money had mysteriously run out. Without funding, his campaign would fail. He gave up his White House bid out of despondency, and eventually passed away, according to some, of a broken heart. Political leaders understood the message; there haven’t been any more Kefauver hearings on the drug industry’s excesses.

Individual products, like the present controversy surrounding aspartame, may be investigated by Congress, but the Drug Trust’s basic activities are exempt.
In the meantime, the pharmaceutical industry soars forward with massive sales and record profits from its new treatments. Squibb’s Capoten, a medication for high blood pressure, may sell $900 million this year, close to $1 billion from just one item!

Another hypertension medication, Vesoten, is anticipated by Merck to generate sales of $720 million this year. Thirteen medications from Merck, in eight therapeutic classifications, generated more than $100 million in sales each in 1987. Due to this huge volume, the main pharmaceutical companies’ production costs have decreased substantially since 1980, on average by 15%. This has actually resulted in a 15% boost in profits due to this one reason.
Only two medications, Noprosyn and Ahaprox, accounted for 53% of Syntex’s 1987 sales volume of $1.1 billion, according to the company. The 11th of January 1988’s Business Week foresees “another gold mine for U.S. Drugmakers.” However, if American doctors would not continue to prescribe these medications to their patients at an increasing rate, this gold mine would simply be another dry shaft.

The Medical Monopoly’s weak point is that it relies so heavily on physicians and hospital staff to market its lucrative products. It is not the goal of the $18 to $20 million required to get a new drug through the three to twelve year testing process to safeguard the public from “dangerous” new drugs. The Drug Trust must be safeguarded for as long as feasible in order to provide the company the opportunity to maximize sales of their current products before they are replaced by more innovative rival products. In the corporate world, it is known as “preserving market share.”

If the drug companies weren’t protected from legal action under these statutes, it would be considered a breach of the antitrust laws.
Drug companies are doing well, rewarding the savvy monopolists who entered at the bottom of the market, as the stock market steadily recovered from the well-planned and executed Black Monday, the stock market crash of October 19, 1987. The investment practices of insurance firms are typically exemplified by Equitable Life, which in 1987 invested 7.8% of its assets, including $13 million in Marion Labs, $4 million in Merck, $7 million in Syntex, and $4 million in Upjohn, in the stock of pharmaceutical businesses. 5.8% more of its interests were held in shares of highly successful hospital supplier companies.
Without mentioning the relationship between drug companies and the global drug trade organization known as “Dope, Inc.,” no history of the most significant drug companies in the world would be complete. A tiny group of international bankers with their headquarters in London played a key role in the creation of a “American” intelligence organization during World War II, which was first known as the Office of Strategic Services.

The British Secret Intelligence Service closely oversaw the establishment of this organization, which President Truman later dismantled because he found its operations to be exceedingly dubious. At the State Department, the OSS then dissipated as a “research group” focused on “behavioral theory.” It was led by a man named Evron Kirkpatrick, whose wife, Jeane Kirkpatrick, is a director of the League for Industrial Democracy, a Rockefeller-funded Trotskyite organization. Kirkpatrick is frequently referred to as “a great anti-Communist,” but the catch is that all honorable Trotskyites are vehemently opposed to the Communist Party’s Moscow branch.

They continue to lament the loss of their leader, Leon Trotsky, who was assassinated in Mexico City in 1940 by a Stalinist agent. After that, the Kirkpatrick organization reappeared under the name “the Central Intelligence Agency,” commanded by Allen Dulles, a partner in the Schroder Financial, the institution that had been in charge of Adolf Hitler’s personal bank account.

John Foster Dulles, Dulles’ brother, served as Secretary of State under President Eisenhower at the time.
Whatever interest the CIA may have had in “intelligence,” it soon became obvious that its main goal was to realize the vast profits that might be earned in the global drug trade. It seemed sense that the SIS agents who created our OSS, afterwards known as the CIA, would have been programmed to go into this business because British fortunes in the early nineteenth century had been founded in this trade.

Later, it was referred to as “the Company,” which obviously refers to a business venture in which someone entered into a contract for financial gain. A “stingy” Congress refused to provide the CIA enough money to pay its covert operations, so a devoted CIA operative would do whatever was possible to help “the Company” raise the money required for this activity, was the justification put forth to justify starting this enterprise. There was actually a lot of money pouring in from someplace since some of its busiest agents, like Edwin Wilson, unexpectedly ended up purchasing six-million-dollar mansions in the growing neighborhood off the Washington Beltway.

How big is the CIA’s global drug program right now?

In testimony before the House Foreign Affairs Committee International Narcotic Task Force, Lt. Col. Bo Gritz, who has thirty years of honorable service with the United States Army Special Forces, predicted that 900 tons of heroin and opium would enter the free world in 1987, with Southeast Asia and the Golden Triangle serving as the sources. Col. Gritz had visited Asia several times in order to speak with Khun Sa, one of the continent’s biggest medicine manufacturers. Theodore Shackley, who oversaw the CIA’s Laos station from 1965 to 1975, was among the well-known CIA agents Khun Sa singled out for responsibility for the global narcotics operation.

According to Khun Sa, Shackley had a tight working relationship with Mao Se Hung, who at the time was the top drug smuggler in Southeast Asia. Santos Trafficante, a “civilian,” was another Shackley coworker. Longtime Mafia boss Trafficante was called before Congress to testify about a potential assassination attempt on Castro in Cuba. The Mafia lost control of an empire of prostitution and gambling in Havana and other towns when the Communist regime came to power. They sought retaliation.

Meyer Lansky, the Syndicate’s Moneybags, hired Trafficante to get rid of Castro. It is unknown whether the attempt was successful or, more likely, whether Castro and the Mafia came to an agreement over the drug trade. As a middleman for the Nugan Hand operation, the drug bank in Australia, and the Golden Triangle, Trafficante then got deeply involved in the Pacific region of the drug trade.
Richard Armitage, whose drug activities got their start during the Vietnam War, was another well-known figure who Khun Sa and others recognized as being involved in the drug trade. Later, he relocated to the American Embassy in Bangkok. He allegedly used his position as ambassador between 1975 and 1979 to conduct narcotics activities.

He later resigned from that position and founded Bangkok’s Far East Trading Corporation. Later, President Reagan named Armitage as the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs, reporting to Casper Weinberger, the Secretary of Defense. Ross Perot, a business magnate, later heard of Armitage’s past. In order to get Armitage fired, he traveled to the White House. He spoke with former CIA director George Bush, who sent him to FBI Director William Webster after brushing him off (shortly afterwards, Webster was quietly appointed head of the CIA).

Perot complained to Webster, but Webster did nothing about it, which allowed him to be appointed to the CIA position. In the meantime, Weinberger abruptly resigned out of concern over the Defense Department’s involvement in the drug affair. Frank Carlucci, who at the time was the National Security Advisor and was familiar with the entire process, succeeded him.

Perot was given the go-ahead to end his crusade against Armitage by Carlucci. Perot was forced to back down since his riches was based entirely on huge government contracts. General Richard Secord, who emerged as a player in the Iran-Contra scandal and boasted of sending plane loads of gold to Southeast Asia to pay off the drug smugglers, was one of the other individuals involved.
The CIA’s covert operations had the daytime soap opera known as the Iran-Contra controversy created specifically for them. They took great pleasure in sending the dim-witted members of Congress on a never-ending quest for the truth. It was a chef’s surprise—a delectable combination of narcotics, the sale of weapons to belligerents, and money, well-seasoned with political sauce, blended with various political commitments to the State of Israel by prominent Washington officials, and garnished with opulent Swiss bank accounts.

In actuality, the Rockefeller interests and the Drug Trust’s long-standing engagement in pro-Communist action was what led to the Iran Contra crisis.

Before sending Leon Trotsky off to launch the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, John D. Rockefeller personally slipped $10,000 in cash into his pocket.

The Socialist Workers Party was the cover name for the Trotskyite Socialist Workers Party, which was left behind to overthrow the United States.

After that, the cover name League for Industrial Democracy was given to it. Thus, the Drug Trust upheld the Stalinist Communist government in Russia while also upholding the Trotskyite movement as the Communist backup government in the United States in the event that the Stalinist government were to fall. Stalin, who had earlier banished Trotsky, was evidently irritated by the competition and despatched an operative to Mexico to kill his competitor after deciding that Trotsky was still too well-liked in Russia to be killed there.
Now the Trotsky movement had its political martyr.

It subtly installed its adherents in positions of authority during the 1950s in the government, colleges, and the media, typically displacing the prevailing Stalinist hardliners. The hard-line anti-Moscow ideologues known as “neoconservatives,” who gradually replaced the Stalinists who had surrounded Roosevelt and Truman in Washington, later added additional and impressive nom de plumes to their mask, such as “the Hard Right,” “the New Right,” “the Religious Right,” or, in some cases, simply “conservatives.”

On a wave of “neoconservatism,” none other than the Hollywood guy on the white horse, Ronald Reagan, came to power in 1980. His main support came from the CIA, which by that time had relegated itself to merely serving as the neoconservatives’ voice, and its house journal, the National Review, whose editor, William Buckley, claimed that the CIA was the only employer he had ever had.

While Reagan’s entire team was controlled by the Hoover Institution, whose two senior fellows, Sydney Hook and Seymour Martin Lipset, were on the board of the League for Industrial Democracy (LID), Jeane Kirkpatrick of the League for Industrial Democracy, which was funded by Rockefeller, became the spokesperson for the new policy. As a result, David Rockefeller continued his tight ties with the Stalinist Communists in Moscow, while other Rockefeller interests guided the Reagan administration’s “anti-Communist” position.

The synthesis, which was still to be resolved, was a classic Hegelian operation of thesis and antithesis. The LID’s strength came from its control over the CIA and its unwavering dedication to the State of Israel as the global capital of the Trotskyite Communist movement. Elliott Abrams was therefore chosen by Reagan to lead the Contra operation in Nicaragua, a classic standoff between the Stalinist regime in Managua and Trotskyite-led rebels in the hills. Elliott Abrams is the son-in-law of Israeli propagandist Norman Podhoretz and was editor of the American Jewish Committee organ, Commentary.
Nobody should be surprised that drugs were involved in this operation because the Rockefeller interests, who founded the American Drug Trust, had long been involved in both ethical and immoral drugs. The contra affair not only put the Israeli Connection, the Swiss Connection, and the Rockefeller Connection in jeopardy but also threatened to blow the lid off the Iran Connection.

Col. Oliver North and Admiral Poindexter were made the center of attention in the media, rather than their overseers, through deft manipulation of the submissive legislators.

As a result, the “crusade against Communism,” a valiant attempt to subdue the Communists à la George Kennan, to be funded with “dirty” money from the sale of drugs, was finally exposed to be the same old crew of CIA agents peddling their drugs and laundering their money in various parts of the world. (The current author is now conducting research for a book that will include all of these operations.)
The CIA’s involvement in the drug trade was closely tied to the Drug Trust’s masters’ parallel goal of achieving complete control over the world’s population, in addition to their need for quick money.

Bowart so claims,

The Cryptocracy is a brotherhood resembling old secret societies, complete with initiation procedures and brainwashing campaigns to foster in its devoted members a unique grasp of its mysteries. It maintains the perception of elitism required for the maintenance of its tight fealty through secret codes and silence pledges.

In “The Curse of Canaan,” the current author has described some of these mysterious practices.
The German allopathic school of medicine’s emphasis on drugs and experimentation, which was introduced to this hemisphere by Illuminati members like Daniel Coit Gilman, was the first step in transforming American medicine from a patient-centered, healing process to a completely different approach, in which the patient became an instrument to be used for various other programs, mostly experiments.

Dr. J. Marion Sims, the “crazy doctor” who founded the Rockefeller-controlled Memorial Hospital Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York, exemplified this. The CIA drug programs, Projects Bluebird, Artichoke, MK Ultra, and MK Delta, in which approximately 139 drugs were used on unknowing victims, including cannabis, LSD, Scopolamine, Sodium Amytal, Chloral Hydrate (the knockout drops of the Old West), ergot, cocaine, morphine, and heroin, were also guided and inspired by this total commitment to “Science.”
The CIA drug tale starts in 1943, when the agency was still known by its previous name, the OSS. Dr. Albert Hoffmann was conducting research in Switzerland’s Sandoz Laboratories (Sandoz was then controlled by the Warburg family). Lysergic acid, also known as LSD, has been produced by Sandoz since 1938, but it has only ever been used in studies with monkeys.

Dr. Hoffmann unintentionally discovered that a subsequent version of this molecule, LSD-25, had extraordinary psychotropic effects when he ingested a small amount of the rye fungus, the drug’s primary ingredient, while he was working. At the height of World War II in August of 1943, this took place.

Later, Dr. Hoffmann reported,

“There burst upon me a continuous stream of bizarre images of remarkable vividness and plasticity, accompanied by a fierce kaleidoscopic-like whirl of colors,” the author writes. I believed I was going mad or would soon die.

This was the first “trip,” the forerunner to millions of drug addicts having similar experiences. By 1958, Dr. Hoffmann had broadened his studies to include mescaline and Mexican mushrooms, both of which were quickly adopted by important New York financiers and notable figures in Hollywood.
Allen Dulles was stationed in Switzerland when LSD was discovered, seemingly by fate. Under his direction, Dope, Inc.’s primary operation, the CIA, underwent a transformation. Then, he took part in a number of activities with representatives of the Nazi administration. Nobody has ever been able to determine whether he was attempting to uphold or topple the Hitler dictatorship.

The most plausible explanation is that he attempted to keep it going to a certain extent, both to keep the war from coming to an early end for the munitions manufacturers who were in it for the money and to keep his Nazi allies from experiencing any kind of victory. Gotterdammerung’s opening notes had already been played. Dulles’ relationship with the Nazi dictatorship dates back to a crucial meeting in Cologne in 1933, when he and his brother, John Foster Dulles, gave Hitler the assurance that the funds would be available to ensure the accomplishment of the objectives he had outlined in “Mein Kampf.”

Later, Allen Dulles rose to the position of director at the Schroder Bank, which was in charge of Hitler’s private banking. It’s interesting that no one has ever been able to locate a single penny of Hitler’s enormous personal fortune, which he had amassed via the selling of his books and other sources of revenue. Hitler lacked a mother’s trust fund, in contrast to his rival, Franklin D. Roosevelt (the proceeds from the China opium trade).
As a leading foreign spy, Dulles was likely aware of Dr. Hoffmann’s research. Dulles purchased 10 kg of LSD from Sandoz after returning home and taking over as the CIA’s new director. The claimed reason for the purchase was “for use in drug studies with animals and humans.”

This means that Dulles ordered 100 million doses of LSD, as there are roughly 10,000 doses per gram. In the meantime, the National Institute of Health had employed Dr. Timothy Leary to conduct LSD and other psychedelic drug experiments. Perhaps the only person who might say this is Timothy Leary, who was eventually fired from the faculty at Harvard after being forced to resign from West Point.

The Uris Foundation of New York City provided funding for Leary’s NIH study. The experiments were conducted between 1953 and 1956, when it was shifted to the US Public Health Service. From 1956 to 1963, it was also conducted at HEW. In a CIA memo dated November 1, 1963, Dr. Leary and his colleague Dr. Richard Alpert were praised for their efforts (who also was later fired from the staff at Harvard).

They developed the switch on, tune in, drop out (TOTID) movement, which rendered American teenagers illiterate for a generation. Leary and his gang gave the movement academic respectability when they launched it from the ivy-covered halls of Harvard, where the CIA always had a proprietary interest.

After being expelled from Harvard, they were taken in by wealthy Mellon heir Tommy Hitchcock and placed in a million-dollar house in New York. The educational chances for thousands of American teenagers were shattered when their movement swept across university campuses.
Nelson Rockefeller served as the chair of a later government investigation into the CIA, which made the following observation in its Rockefeller Report to the President on CIA activities:

The CIA started researching the characteristics of several medications that alter behavior in the late 1940s. In 1973, the destruction of all program-related documents, including 152 distinct files, was mandated. Additionally, the CIA made a deal with the previous Bureau of Narcotics to have unwitting victims receive mind-altering substances in “regular life-settings.”

The aforementioned made reference to a number of tragic occurrences in which CIA workers who had been administered LSD doses against their will committed themselves while under its poisonous impact.

After learning the real reasons for these “suicides” several years later, the relatives of the victims successfully sued the government for compensation.
The most notorious of the several CIA projects was MK Ultra. Dr. Sidney Gottlieb, a different example of the “crazy doctor,” oversaw these programs.

Despite the destruction his actions caused, Dr. Gottlieb was never prosecuted. In fact, during his final days in office, Richard Helms, the then-CIA director, saw to it that all documentation of the MK Ultra project was destroyed, protecting Dr. Gottlieb from legal action.
Dr. Gottleib, who has been referred to as “a pharmacological Dr. Strangelove,” had the idea of giving hallucinatory medications to entire populations. The U.S. Army thought of implementing a plan to use these medications to render entire populations mad after being influenced by his CIA research. The Army Chemical Corps conducted tests on LSD on approximately 1,500 military members in the middle of the 1960s.

Many of them experienced significant psychological trauma; the most dreadful signs didn’t show up for years. The Army then proceeded to test a stronger chemical hallucinogen known as B.Z. Between 1959 and 1975, this medication was tested at Edgewood Arsenal. B.Z. exposure affected about 2,800 soldiers. Since then, some of them have filed complaints alleging that the experiment caused them irreparable harm.
The assassination of President John F. Kennedy was one of the incidental outcomes of the CIA drug program, for which several organizations—including the CIA, the Mafia, the Cuban Communists, and others—were later held accountable.

They were all heavily involved, which served as the foundation for these accusations. Forty people later died violent deaths to cover up the trail. Some of them were journalists, with the late Dorothy Kilgallen, a well-known columnist, being the most notable. She utilized her connections in 1965 to secure authorization to speak with Jack Ruby in his cell.

Later, she claimed to have discovered information that would “blow the J. F. Kennedy case sky high.” She revealed this to friends. She was discovered shortly after in her flat, dead from what was later determined to be a “overdose” of alcohol and barbiturates. All of her notes from her conversations with Ruby had vanished, and the flat was in disarray.

No one has ever acknowledged seeing them up until this point. The Medical Monopoly then used Kilgallen’s passing as justification for issuing a pompous cautionary statement about “the dangers of taking barbiturates and alcohol,” but made no mention of the risks associated with going to see Jack Ruby. Ruby frequently griped about being poisoned at the beginning of 1967. He was later found to have cancer, but he also passed away from a “stroke,” along with one of his cronies, David Ferrie.
The history of Dr. D. Ewen Cameron, who personified the Hollywood portrayal of the insane doctor experimenting on hapless human victims, eclipses the appearance of Dr. Sidney Gottlieb as the CIA’s “mad scientist.” Dr. Cameron was raised in America after leaving his native Scotland. He lived in Lake Placid, New York, even though he did the most of his medical work there.

The two-country operation may have been started out of a wish to stay out of court. Dr. Cameron acquired funding from the Rockefeller Foundation in 1943 to establish the Allen Memorial Institute as a new mental health facility attached to Montreal’s Royal Victorian Hospital, the university’s teaching hospital.

Later, as part of the MK Ultra project, $10 million in CIA funding was transferred to Cameron via Dr. Gottlieb thanks to this Rockefeller relationship.

Due to Dr. Cameron’s prior commitment to mind-altering experiments, this money was transferred to him starting in 1953. Therefore, the CIA money were designated for mind control.
After developing some of the most horrific “psychiatric” methods ever known, Dr. Cameron gained the trust of the Rockefeller interests. He developed the “depatterning” method and, later, the “psychic driving” method, both of which would have been praised by any Communist expert in brainwashing.

The process of “depatterning” started with high medication dosages paired with electric shocks, or ECT as it is more well called at the time.

Due to the harm it caused to the patients, it was later disregarded for many years. However, amazingly, it has since been reintroduced and is still used frequently in some circles. ECT has been called the most horrific experience imaginable by its victims. In essence, the electrocution process was simply stopped before it could be fatal. Two or three times a day, the sufferer was electrocuted while tied into a chair.
The term “sleep therapy” was used to refer to the portion of the program where depatterning was first restricted to the strong medication dosages, administered over a period of fifteen to thirty days. One dose of each of the following medications—100 mg of Thorazine, 100 mg of Nembutal, 100 mg of Seconal, 150 mg of Vernonal, and 100 mg of Phenergan—could put any patient to sleep, making this “sleep cocktail” itself fit for a Dr. Frankenstein. The patient received three daily doses of the sleep mixture.

The patient was awakened two or three times per day later in the sleep therapy treatment to receive the electric shock treatments. Dr. Cameron increased the voltage for shock treatments twenty to forty times higher than any other doctor had ever dared, disregarding the recommended voltage. He observed with approval as the frightened patients screamed nonstop throughout the electroshock “treatment.”

He cherished the idea that the screams were likewise a crucial component of the therapy, even though it was probably more for his own satisfaction.
The second stage of depatterning, which was also among Cameron’s stranger creations, was “sensory isolation,” which involved placing the patient in a huge box with his eyes cushioned and ears closed. The patient had undergone the Cameron depatterning procedure for almost 30 days when he was reduced to a powerless zombie.

Dr. Cameron entered the following stage, which he called “psychic driving,” after being confident that he had rid the patient of all prior thoughts and pictures.

This involved making the patient listen to taped messages that had been replayed hundreds of times. This “therapy” was delivered by headphones or pillow speakers. When they learned about the new Cameron techniques, every spy agency in the world was green with envy. Fortunately, the CIA had arrived earlier and had given him plenty of money for his insane obsessions.
Cameron, who was born in 1901 close to Glasgow, attended the University of London, maybe picking up some of his peculiar notions there. Additionally, it’s conceivable that he joined a cult with such horrifying beliefs in London. Mary Shelley had actually written Frankenstein in those environment. The CIA Technical Services and the Staff Chemical Division eagerly supported his efforts throughout his activities in Canada. As word of his “revolutionary” methods spread, awards poured in for him.

He rose to the position of chairman of the World Psychiatric Association, the American Psychiatric Association, and the Canadian Psychiatric Association.
After Dr. Cameron passed away in 1967, the CIA came under attack from some of his victims’ survivors. He had tested MK Ultra on 53 individuals in its most advanced stages. There were several well-known Canadians in this group. Harry Weinstein, whose father Louis had been a prominent businessman in Montreal, eventually filed a lawsuit.

Velma Orlikon, the spouse of a Canadian parliamentarian from the Democratic Party, was another victim. In spite of their credentials, the victims came up against a stone wall. In January 1988, The Washington Post reported that the CIA was still contesting the claims of nine elderly Canadians who claimed they had been drugged in the 1950s and were seeking $175,000 in damages, which later climbed to $1,000,000 per person. After nine years of CIA delay tactics, the case was ultimately ordered to trial, but no one is forecasting a quick resolution.
The CIA continued its own experiments in the US during the Cameron era. They hired George Hunter White, a drug trafficker, and put him up in an apartment in Greenwich Village. At order to meet individuals at events or in bars and entice them back to the apartment, he was given the cover identities of an artist and a seaman.

The squalid apartment had been turned into an espionage setup with two-way mirrors, recording devices, and other tools of the trade thanks to CIA funding. LSD was administered to White’s guests as the CIA’s equipment scrupulously recorded their reactions. These frequently involved “bad trips,” during which the victims briefly lost their minds, attempted suicide or murder, and provided other indications of the “mind control” that the CIA was interested in learning about.
The CIA relocated White to San Francisco, where he was given access to two more CIA pads, in order to protect him from exposure by complainants. Operation Midnight Climax was then launched by him. Prostitutes who were addicted to drugs were paid to pick up guys in neighborhood taverns and bring them to an orgy where LSD-laced cocktails were served. The subsequent event was meticulously recorded on tape and captured on camera, though it’s unlikely that the Library of Congress would ever have access to the materials.
Despite the extremes to which physicians like Dr. Cameron and Dr. Sims went in their scientific zeal, there are horror stories from the clinical trials carried out by the moral pharma firms that are just as alarming.

Each new drug product has the potential to generate hundreds of millions of dollars in earnings, thus the Medical Monopoly is required to abide by the rules they themselves created and implemented. The restrictions’ main objective is to preserve a fresh wonder medicine’s market share until a more recent wonder drug may take its place.

According to one practitioner of alternative medicine who was imprisoned for selling herbal drinks,

A wonder medicine is one that makes you wonder what it will do to you when you take it.

If the producer thinks the new drug could be a huge money earner, the limits are typically followed. He does not intend to introduce a new drug to the market, have it become successful, and then be compelled to recall it because he did not adhere to all rules.

Pharmaceutical businesses unveiled 4,829 new medicines, 3,686 new compounds, and 1,143 new dosages between 1948 and 1958.

These goods had to go through the procedure on all of them. The FDA’s ultimate clearance of new pharmaceuticals is said to take an average of seven to ten years, costing between ten and twelve million dollars, and usually up to eighteen to twenty million.

Clinical trials are conducted in three distinct periods.

Phase I asks for evaluating the new medication on a limited group of healthy individuals.
Phase II calls for “volunteers” to use the medication for a two-year trial period.
Phase III requires more extensive clinical testing on between 1000 and 3000 individuals over a three-year period.

This indicates that only after the drug’s toxicity and other potential adverse effects were determined during Phase II testing, do doctors and hospitals start to give it.

This means that people who prescribe the treatment are depending on the Phase II testing to promote it as trustworthy because these are typically patients who are able to sue or produce negative publicity if the drug turns out to be harmful.
Phase II, when the medicine is tested on people, typically calls for a captive audience. Sometimes, medications are tested covertly in schools, hospitals, and mental health facilities, but pharmaceutical companies typically prefer to employ prisoners as test subjects since they are less likely to voice concerns and are a more safer demographic.

After being released from a mental facility, even inmates have been known to claim that they were exposed to illegitimate drug tests. Criminally guilty inmates are less inclined to voice their complaints. The number of medical experiments conducted in jails since the turn of the century has been highest in the United States.
The law-abiding individual might believe it is OK to do medical tests on inmates, despite the fact that several German doctors were hanged for exactly this type of crime. One method the prisoner could pay back to society would be to submit to drug testing. Today’s reality, however, is that in addition to the large number of criminals housed in our jails, a growing number of Americans are being imprisoned for political offenses.

In medical experiments, these political prisoners face the same dangers as the most seasoned criminals. The amount of punishments imposed by American courts as punishment for financial issues, such as mortgage or tax issues, is increasing every year.
The American public hardly ever learn about the use of convicts in medical experiments because of the Medical Monopoly’s stranglehold over the media. Only a handful such pieces, all of which were in support of the tests, can be found after a thorough search of magazine indexes from 1900 to the present. Except when they riot and attract a large number of camera crews with the full top story treatment, the convicts themselves receive minimal media attention.

The main proponent of employing inmates for drug testing is still the American Medical Association.

According to Pertinax, a columnist who wrote in the British Medical Journal in January 1963,

“I’m troubled by the World Medical Association’s current hedging on its prohibition on utilizing convicts as experimental subjects. The AMA has had an impact on its suspension. American scientists made jokes about it at the ninth gathering. Prison inmates make excellent study subjects since they are significantly less expensive than chimps, according to one of the kindest American scientists I know.

The scientist wasn’t kidding; whereas American convicts can be purchased for as cheap as $1 per day, chimps can cost as much as $4500 each. Pertinax was making a comment regarding a World Medical Association proposal from 1961 that stated “prisoners, being captive groups, should not be employed as the subjects of experiments.”

The idea was ultimately tabled despite vehement opposition from American Medical Association delegates.
If this reminds you in any way of “Nazi physicians'” atrocities and their experimentation on prisoners, it’s not a coincidence. In their own defense, the accused doctors claimed that they were only adhering to customs that have been prevalent in the US for a long time. 515 German doctors were tried at Nuremberg during one trial in 1947 on the suspicion of doing experiments on prisoners.

In their defense, they presented evidence demonstrating that, in 1906, American doctors in Philadelphia had used prisoners as test subjects for medical experiments by injecting them with the plague and beri beri germs; in 1915, prisoners in Massachusetts received pellagra injections; and in 1944, hundreds of American prisoners received malaria injections under the pretext of military necessity in order to help our soldiers fighting in the Pacific.

The German doctors were accused despite this defense, and some of them were put to death.
With the recent release of Robert Jay Lifton’s book, “Nazi Doctors,” one of the many books about Nazis that flow from American presses in an ever-increasing flood, obeying the maxim that anything sells in the United States if a swastika is emblazoned on the cover, the topic has come up once more. The book sparked a lively discussion on the New York Times Sunday Book Review’s Letters page.

When reviewing the book for the first time, Bruno Bettelheim claimed that the attempt to understand the Nazi doctors was flawed.

“because of the constant risk that full comprehension would approach pardoning.”

Of course, Christians believe that forgiveness is a fundamental part of their faith.

Paul Ramsey requested that we share an advertisement clip in our letter.

Professor McCance and the members of the Medical Research Department want information if and when babies are born in women’s wards and lying-in homes with meningocele or other defects that make it improbable that they would live more than a short time.

Professor McCance and his team want to do some tests on these kids that won’t cause them any discomfort, but they feel they have no right to do so because these kids are healthy and normal. Professor McCance must be immediately telephoned upon learning of the birth of these youngsters.

During the 1946 trial of the German doctors, Mr. Ramsey pointed out that this advertising appeared in an American journal.

In order to correct mistakes that had previously been published, including the claim that one of those sentenced was, Telford Taylor, the American prosecutor during the Nuremberg trials, wrote to the Times.

“Edwin Katzenellenbogen, who was formerly a faculty member at Harvard Medical School.”

According to Taylor, no one with the surname Kazenellenbogen had ever been tried in Nuremberg.

Given that the name has appeared in other practical jokes, it appears to have been added as part of a sophisticated hoax. The Times didn’t apologize. Telford Taylor also noted that there had actually been twenty doctors tried at Nuremberg in the case in question, not nineteen as claimed in the review, and that four had been hanged, five had received life sentences, three had received lesser sentences, and seven had been found not guilty of all charges.

Large-scale medical experimentation exploits the “volunteers,” much as the practice that was denounced as illegal at Nuremberg while it was still being carried out in American prisons. Some are illiterate, but the majority are young, healthy, and have never suffered from a serious illness. They don’t have much understanding of what it may be like to contract a major sickness after receiving an injection of an experimental medicine or the potential life-long consequences that could follow.
Time magazine published an exposé of the extensive programs that federal government officials had built in our jails in 1963. The “war on cancer” that Bobst and the Laskers had declared from the White House was used as justification for these extensive testing initiatives. The medical professionals were giving leukemia patients’ blood and live cancer cells through injection to the inmates.

These agreements allowed a number of doctors in Oklahoma to make $300,000 a year from the drug industry. These doctors also routinely collected prisoner blood, paying the inmates $7 per quart, and then sold the blood for $15.
The American Medical Association asked Governor Dwight of Illinois to scotch the claims in the 1940s when the first reports of inmates being used in medical experimentation started to circulate. He gave Morris Fishbein and other AMA leaders the job of serving on a committee that earnestly “investigated” the tests and produced favorable findings, which he used to cover up the experiments. Fishbein himself declared the prisoner tests to be “perfect, because of their conformance with ethical principles,” after returning from Stateville Penitentiary.

In order to further explain his enthusiasm, Fishbein noted that the program provided a real benefit to the general population due to the “reformation value of participating in a medical trial.” One may have anticipated Fishbein to show up at Nuremberg and defend the German physicians there using the justification that they had also provided this “reformation value” to the prisoners of the extermination camps.

When asked about the outrage in some circles, a Wyeth laboratory representative for public affairs issued a statement that read, “Almost all of our Phase II testing is done on convicts.”

In actuality, there was a continuous and severe competition among the big pharma companies to gather inmates who could be “subjects” in medical trials. When they purchased “exclusive rights” to the prisoners of Mississippi’s Jackson State Prison, Upjohn and Parke-Davis followed accepted monopoly rules. Following that, these businesses were successful in enrolling 1,200 of the 4,000 convicts there in the testing program.

Business Week provided a somewhat critical assessment of the show, noting that,

“Instead of focusing on a drug’s effectiveness, studies at the prison are largely intended to detect its toxicity… When adverse responses start to develop, doses are gradually increased.

In plainer English, the dosage was raised until it rendered the prisoner very ill or damaged their body.

The outcomes were frequently paralysis or death. To compensate them for participating in these tests, the inmates received $0.30 per day. Business Week mentioned the fact that the prisoners were required for the Phase II testing’s life-threatening component.

The pharmaceutical corporations need information on the potential number of persons who might be harmed by the drug or the potential number of lawsuits from irate consumers.
Prison authorities welcomed the drug testing procedures, maintaining historic structures from the Civil War to house the inmates while they constructed opulent new administrative buildings and other perks of the trade for themselves. In 1971, the New York State Prison System spent $5,500 annually on each inmate, of which 15 cents per day went toward clothing and other necessities and 72 cents per day for food.

Less than a dollar per day of the $17 per prisoner per day budget was used for each prisoner’s daily maintenance. This was a crucial component of a jail system that the Boss Tweed had established and that still provided many excellent opportunities for those who were vigilant.
During these postwar years, a small number of articles were released to the public. As closed systems, prisons rarely allow for the presence of investigative journalists. One of the most shocking cases, which would have disgraced any Nazi doctor, originated from California’s Vacaville State Prison. Here, extensive testing procedures have been run for years. Most of the prisoners received only a dollar per day, while a few received $15 per month.

Heart damage, hair loss, joint discomfort, leg swelling, shortness of breath, and skin hemorrhages were just a few of the serious side effects that the patients described. One testing company, the Solano Institute for Medical and Physical Research, was able to establish its offices inside the prison. The “Institute” administered various injections to 1,500 prisoners and was organized as a nonprofit business under the California charitable trust legislation. A prisoner who was transported to Vacaville for “therapy” eventually filed a lawsuit against the doctor, a well-known dermatologist and the director of his specialty group.

The prisoner had been made to receive muscle injections of the medication Caridase from Lederle. The fibrinolytic enzymes in this medication were meant to be an anti-inflammatory. The patient said that he had been taken captive by trustees and forced to have injections in both arms. His weight decreased from 140 pounds to just 75 pounds, and he eventually suffered an almost deadly muscular illness and persistent stomach ulcers. He was compensated with four bucks.
Dr. Austin Stough was the mastermind behind the prison experiments. In order to conduct drug testing at several jails in three southern states—Alabama, Arkansas, and Oklahoma—he had launched contracts with the biggest pharmaceutical producers in the country.

37 pharmaceutical companies, including eminent businesses like Upjohn, Wyeth, Lederle, Squibb, and Merck, funded the initiative to analyze blood plasma at its height, which involved 137 jails between 1963 and 1970. Although the financial rewards were substantial, the program’s outcomes were inconclusive. The program was eventually called out for “gross mismanagement, careless handling, and contamination” of test materials, criticism that led to its termination. Years of aftereffects were endured by hundreds of convicts.

Before his strategies were shown to be ineffective, Stough had established a prison monopoly that generated healthy profits.
The drug testing stories, despite their dramatic implications, were met with thunderous silence from the “bleeding hearts” of the country’s media, possibly due to concerns that publicity about these programs might have sparked questions about why German doctors had been executed for similar practices. A review of Readers Guide, an index to magazine articles published across the country, revealed that from 1945 to 1970, the peak of the jail testing programs, there were only three pieces about it in the entire era.The first was a touching article titled “Prison Heroes Conquer Malaria” that appeared in Coronet in November 1950. Dr. Fishbein himself had been shocked by the “ethical” nature of the drug testing program, and the article was a glowing account of experiments carried out at the Illinois State Prison in Joliet.

Convict Volunteers was the title of the second article, which appeared in the Saturday Evening Post on March 2, 1963. The convicts were referred to as “human guinea pigs” in this naive depiction of the drug experimenters. The journalist described a prisoner who had been intentionally burned on both arms, saying, “The pain was really intense,” and mentioned other inmates who had been given cancer injections.

The author of this article ends it with a glowing review of the program, noting that it made “the volunteers feel self-respect,” despite the fact that the prisoners in this story, who were inmates at the Ohio State Prison in Columbus, were not paid for participating in these experiments (Ohio statutes piously forbade such payments, saving the drug companies even more money).
According to the third report, published in Business Week on June 27, 1964, drug companies were able to save a significant amount of money by employing prisoners as test subjects for their drug trials.